Education is the crucible in which Innovations are forged. Promoting creativity and incentivizing innovations through our educational institutions is a first step towards broadening and deepening the impact of innovations in our society and economy. In large scale education systems such as ours, catering to a vast population with relatively limited resources, this is a major challenge. At the same time, with rapid advances in new technologies, changing needs of the economy, and the very presence of the challenges identified above, the sector itself presents a fertile ground for pioneering innovations. Recognising the fundamental role of education in nurturing and fostering an ecosystem of innovation the National Innovation Council is engaged in a series of initiatives to encourage innovations in existing educational institutions – universities, colleges and schools, as well as promoting new educational models and innovative platforms for knowledge creation, dissemination and application. Some of the key proposals of the NInc in this domain include:
(a) Creation of a separate scholarship stream of National Innovation Scholarships analogous to the National Talent Search Scheme.
(b) Setting up an Innovation Centre in each DIET (District Institute of Education and Training) to enhance teacher training and enable them to become facilitators of creativity and innovative thinking.
(c) Mapping of Local History, Ecology and Cultural Heritage by each High School in the country to create critical thinking on their local environment by students.
(d) Creation of a National Innovation Promotion Service to replace/add to National Service Scheme in Colleges to use college students to identify local innovations.
(e) Setting up a Meta University, as a new model for a 21st Century University where a network of institutions riding on the National Knowledge Network come together to offer students a collaborative and multidisciplinary learning experience.
(f) Setting up twenty Design Innovation Centres co-located in institutes of national importance.
(g) Setting up University Innovation Clusters
NInC proposes to identify and facilitate the development of 20 University Innovation Clusters across the country where innovation would be seeded through Cluster Innovation Centres.
Historical Background of Education :-
In the history of education in India is very rich and interesting, one can trace the ancient India’s education to the 3rd century BC. Research shows that in the ancient days ,sages and scholars imported education orally, but after the development of letters, it took in the form of writing. Palm leaves and barks of tree were used for education, and this in turn helped spread of written literature.
According to Hinduism, the importance has given to “Gurukul System.”In which preferences given to education releting to Vedas given to different categories of ‘Varnas’.
When Buddhism spread in India,Education become available to every one and this led to the establishment of some world famous educational institutions likeNalanda,Vikramshila,Takshashila.
As India participated in the drafting of the Declaration and has ratified the covenant; Hence India is under obligation to implement such provisions.
The constitution makers recognizing the importance and significance of right to education made it a constitutional goal, and placed it under chapter IV Directive principle of stare policy of the Constitution of India.
Art.45 “requires state to make provisions within 10 years for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of 14 years that the state shall promote with specific care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people.”
It is significant to note that among several articles enshrined under part IV of the Indian Constitution,Art.45 had been given much importance as education is basic necessary of the democracy and if the people are denied their right to education them democracy will be paralyzed. By establishing obligations on the state by the constitution makers, made it responsibility of the coming governments to formulate a programme in order to achieve the given goals, but the unresponsive and crazy attitude of government to achieve the objective enshrined in Art.45 denied the hopes and aspirations of the people.
But the Indian Judiciary showed active interest in providing free and compulsory education to all children below the age of 14 years. In many of the cases judiciary had given landmark judgments.
In case of Mohini Jain Vs State of Karnataka AIR 1992 SC 1858,the supreme court held that “ right to education is a fundamental right to education springs from the right to life. The right to life under Art.21 and the dignity of the individual cannot fully be appreciated without the enjoyment of right to education.”
In case of Unni Krishnan J.P Vs State of Andra Pradesh AIR SC ,The supreme court was asked to examine the decision of Mohini Jain’s case. In the present case, the Apex court partly overruled given in Mohini Jain’s case. The court held that, the right to education is implicit in the right to life and personal liberty guaranteed by Art.21 and must be interpreted in light of the directive principle of state policy contained in Art.45,46.
Further Supreme court tin M.C.Mehta Vs State of Tamil Nadu,the supreme court observed that, to develop the full potential of the children they should be prohibited to do hazardous work, and education should be made available to them. In this regard the court held that, the government should formulate programme offering job oriented education so that their employment should not be affected.